但大家却能从这种差异中看出艺术精气神的风流倜傥致性追求,姬子画分为笔墨山水、冰雪风光、墨道山水多个时期

  起码就生活的现身姿态来讲,与道境遇后,老子对社会风气的不容可谓一览无遗。现代的净土例子是Witt根Stan,他的《逻辑军事学论》见道后,当即脱离Russell、凯恩斯诸精英名流圈,跑到边远山村作小教、作教堂园丁有十八年之久。在本次墨道法相姬子个人展览馆(二零零六年11月25日)以前,作为个人生命,姬子先生于世界已隐没近70年;作为丹青生涯,姬子于绘画界也已沉默了近50年!这种传说、乖谬,听起来少不了悲壮凄美的气数,正是一个人怀有托命的画者的天分标志。

初识姬子先生,即被其仁厚广博的胸怀所触动;再观其画,畅神与载道仁同一视,这里的神是山川宇宙亘古激扬的气派,而非文士取象简略的妄动与休闲,也非笔墨游戏中的逃逸与自赏;这里的道既是天地之道,也是人品的浇筑,画中无人,却随地跳摄人心魄本的工夫,此工夫外化为本来山川或荒寂、或广漠、或雄奇的状貌,营构出高雅而略带悲壮、神秘而发人幽思的风光世界。

  与祖先李聃,西人维氏的显著反差是,作为画者的姬子的隐没,更加多饱含时期国家与民族的强逼性与正剧性。在1977年桂林大地震、毛泽东身故此前,蕴涵艺术家在内的中原知识分子只有两种情势可接收:当(毛的)学子,作(国体)奴役和藏世隐没或思维烈士。个人独立的学识生命是谈不上的,画画大师也是首在异域,胡涂乱抹,丹青梦破。姬子先生选拔的是生活隐没:一来是底层男生,固无话语权的投射,也躲了异化性的磨难;二来是画海初渡,渐资历相,浮云苍狗,笔墨之决定性的矗立尚在未来的地平线。固然如此,早先时代少之又少的创作也让他协和研商每每之后,自行完全沦亡了。那不也是意气风发种自寻短见么?这是风流浪漫种有别于Colin C.Shu、傅雷屏弃生命的另生机勃勃种文化自寻短见。Colin C.Shu、傅雷等中华知识者未有熬过来,姬子先生等中中原人民共和国知识者则熬到了壹玖柒捌年从今以后,熬到了不利的春天,也熬到了议程的阳节。

姬子先生生活在国外燕山当下,数十年充满在雄壮博大的风光蒙受中,其山水创作曲尽其妙,在文化精气神和中华措施本体上直达了为之侧目赞扬的莫斯中国科学技术大学学。一遍上门拜会姬子先生在京都的住所,都深深感动于他的这种情势执着,敬佩于她的点染的这种痛快淋漓、满目浩瀚之气。

  20世纪80时代是中华社会的山岭,在姬子先生也是。在80年份前期以前,是他水墨画的首先等第,即笔墨山水期。雪域牦牛,高雅与美观兼名,气势与气韵融和,为观念写实力作,更是姬子的振作振作自画像。石榴红作底的本色格调,展现的是灾害性时代的乌黑回忆(黑)和温暖尚存的秉性憧憬(红)的精气神图式。画的最上端,是云山穿梭的雪原灵光(白);画的尾部,是伫立雪地的千山万壑牦牛。毋需多言,相约在这里,神契在那;在那之中的壹只牦牛将向山上的灵境进发!太多的磨难,太深的闯荡,也太厚的积贮,使姬子既无法停留于纯粹精粹的人性故乡,也不能够满意于横眉怒指标不二等秘书诀指控;既差距这一个甜美俗气的切实国画,也分别这一个波诡云谲的虚幻丹青。姬子像那头已至山下脚下、雪地尽处的小山牦牛,目光只神往着早已密嘱印心的尖峰灵境。

早在南北朝时,宗炳就曾论到:夫有影响的人以神法道而贤者通,山水以形媚道而仁者乐。古板山水画价值决断的视点从黄金年代初步就奠基于道这风流罗曼蒂克形上学的求偶。有形仅是为着媚道,在对道的体证中实现自己的高兴,因为道的悬空与混沌,由于媚道这风华正茂学问定位的裁定,古板山水之形在保持自然水平的可辨识性的根底上只可以是画者用笔墨符号组合堆砌的、主观化的杜撰时间和空间,固定的图式、程式化的招数、相对稳固性的价值取向成为古板山水画的显着特征。约束与限定即便保障了思想山水画系统的完好与纯粹,使得古时候的人能在范山模水中形容胸中逸气,在超以象外的名胜中体证悟道,但针锋相投成熟的种类也会呈现出相对僵化的视觉语言。怎么着在这里意气风发悖论中搜索突破,不仅仅是观念山水历时性发展中的内部必要,在近今世中西文化碰撞与挤压中更足见出变革的急切。

  告别笔墨山水之后,在所谓的雪花风光时代,姬子大旨型选拔的当然物象有八个:燕地GreatWall和雪地藏天。采纳这两大物象至少有三重型机器缘:其后生可畏,燕地GreatWall是姬子的地望故乡,具有生存论上的前定蒙受;其二,天寒地冻,万里雪飘,望天南地北,惟余莽莽(毛泽东《沁园春。雪》),作为知识视线的最高境界象征,具有历史学的求实选择性;其三,GreatWall逶迤燕山,有着时间性的本体论地位与道路表示。那也表示,画师义无反顾地辞行了精粹性灵私享的圆满性与或然,而将和谐置于重新启程、再造乾坤的高贵举意与纯粹境界。《燕塞凛姿》与《大浪淘沙》就是这种举意境界的表明亲眼看见。《燕塞凛姿》,GreatWall万里连连,其尽头在哪儿吧?《大浪淘沙》,山海云浪滔天,其停泊在何地呢?雪域藏天应缘而至,云落笔际。第风流浪漫,雪域藏天无论就外在地理照旧内在灵性,都以私人商品房与高雅的一隅;第二,在冰雪山水期,姬子采纳雪域藏天再自然不过了;第三,藏天雪域以其神秘性与圣洁性来说,具象性回答了尽头与哪个地方停泊的精气神儿家园。假设说,故乡燕地的万里GreatWall是岁月的笔墨符号语言与代表,浪涌滔天的云山是风流人生的法子表现与蕴含,那么,远方雪域的藏天正是空间的笔墨符号语言与代表,是具象性的精气神家园。燕地藏天资别是时间与上空、道路与归宿的切实可行符号,也是最终分其他标志具象。由燕地藏天的现实符号时间和空间合一,走到《乾坤氤氲》与《大牝》代表起始的本体论上的天体合风姿浪漫,画师便由冰雪风光走到了墨道山水,由审美的华贵气势来到了灵智的秘密法相,墨与道完结了最后的相逢、互现与澄明。美乃真理(道)在世的容身方式。由于道的栖居,姬子的笔墨敞出无比的纯净、辉煌与神远。中黄炎子孙民共和国画豆蔻年华千年来,变成了构图范式的三远说:即平远法、高远法与幽(深)远法。平远法使用最多,高远法次之;幽(深)远法有此一说,实际画作屈指可数、基本阙如。姬子先生的墨道山水,基本上都以幽(深)远法构图,产生范式,增补空白,堪为宗师。餐风沐雨,以启山林,有创办者之劳绩;乾坤氤氲,法相庄敬,有集成者之富贵。

已近花甲之年的姬子先生在四十余年的求艺悟道中,深切感触到这种时期的忧郁、艺术发展的徘徊与可疑,他以仁立基,养浩然正气,在天道、地道、人道之间架设出团结的哲思,正如所说光明磊落,乃是天地之间的正气,它付与人的是真善美的莫斯中国科学技术大学学统一以致高尚、悲壮、凛烈、刚正和欣尉。音乐家的成才之小说,要反映无为之精气神,即宇宙精气神儿,亦即大道精气神儿。乐师不只是天道、地道、人道和睦相处的体会精晓者,何况也是倡导者,同一时候又是大自然意识的追求者。姬子先生严秉那样的办法追求,其创作正是此权利承载的实际展现,故名其山水为墨道山水。从底下风华正茂段话可看出其限制的追求,看自身的画,发生持续愉悦的欢欣,轻便的消遣或内行人对金钱观专门的职业笔墨的玩味,但却能扩充得体的思辨沟通甚至小说引发的生机勃勃体。作者的画,不是一介雅士画的这种笔情墨趣、诗情画意,把玩戏墨、愉悦适意的抒发心中逸气式的著述,诸如山居图、隐居图。袅袅炊烟,蒙蒙细雨,片片小舟、春柳轻拂、河鸭淌漾、鸳鸯戏水、板焦仕女等等。小编画所喷发的是大自然生命的缕缕运动及顽强地挣扎抗衡和深沉地呼噪。作者力求用自家的艺术语言洗濯人的调整与麻烦,谋求宇宙生命的的确含意。

  那可能并不不经常。从点子文学角度看,平远法、高远法越多地依靠着人的眸子和外界视知资历,分别满意静的绝色韵味与动的华贵境界这两大人文央浼。幽(深)远准则不然。它与人的眼睛和外界视知经验不能够说毫不相关,但却首先信赖的是人的灵智和内在超验直觉。平远法、高远法越多外师造化,幽(深)远法越来越多中得心源。那对画者的渴求确实太高。千年画史,能中得心源者一丝一毫,又多是石涛诸高僧逸笔(黄宾虹)。姬子画出,在十分大程度上转移了中夏族民共和国画的那风流洒脱历史方式。姬子画分为笔墨山水、冰雪风光、墨道山水多个时代和花色,从创作范式讲,恰对应了中黄炎子孙民共和国画古板所谓的平远、高远与幽(深)远三法。特别是她的墨道山水,其对幽(深)远法的运用推行,固然影响了姬子自个儿如石涛、Bath卡尔式的彼岸性宗教高度,却在撰文心态和镜头境界两地点达成了华夏写生对于最高灵境的追求(姬子),诚然是国画的严重性收获与佛法。墨道法相:姬子个人展览馆的命名与宗旨,贴切地满含了这一中华写生的参天灵境与画作境界。在文化古板上,中中原人民共和国想一想精气神儿是儒释道三足之鼎;墨道法相:姬子个人展览馆的命名自个儿,已见全鼎的香甜斑斓。在切实可行的展出作品方面,大概是因了宗旨缘故,作为书法家中期首要跋涉的笔墨山水和冰雪风光一概未收;展出的四十小说,全部都以近来的墨道自然与整合水墨系列小说。面前遇到沉静澄明、神远天成的文章,商量家多年难见的热情被激起出来了,这是四个现代景观音乐大师重临观道原点后创建出来的新图式、新境界(贾方舟),这里有宇宙和人类的前生今生(殷双喜),与自然所隐敝的地下(丹托)。墨道,从姬子的壹位心源终归来到了普世的澄明境域!世界对于它的老实的画者,在深远的传奇人物核实之后,终于有了最至少的正经礼节。那会被看作标记性的,它也真的具备象征意义。

主意语言作为意气风发种方法而非表明的目标,其根本在于述说什么、怎样述说,东西方古板方式都各自有着和煦的语言系统,但大家却能从这种差距中看到艺术精气神儿的朝气蓬勃致性追求。姬子先生的山水画就是带着那样的金钱观、时期感以至鲜明的任务感来探究自个儿的格局语言,既尖锐古板山水画语言的纵向脉络,又对西方艺术进行横向剖判,在驰骋择决中,为本肉体貌开垦出一片新境。

  如仅就实际的时间性来讲,姬子的墨道,大约上与21新世纪同步来到大家的全世界世界。近日四年的着色、几何符号以致结合水墨并不是墨道的上马,而是墨道内部的应缘而出,因境而生与调度转移;再具体说,是从墨道山水转向墨道法相,是从法相初显渐臻法相严穆。局外不谙,难点与误解便通过发出。

缘道立象心源造境

  其风度翩翩,面对戏剧家姬子墨道法相的今世性与重新整合种类,有意中人说谷文达、赵无极等画师已研商表现过了。余答之曰,作为手法,构成性是人类的逻辑元项;作为玩的方法,儿童的摆积木最直观生动;作为画法,在Pablo Picasso立体主义(构图)和奥地利共和国新展现派(色彩),都有增进前例,中华夏儿女民共和国皆后继;作为道法,吾未见别人犹如姬子的墨道法相和法相严肃。姬子《构成水墨种类》的副标题,即与道对话。姬子是本体论上的因境而生、随缘构成,而非手艺画法游戏,难题与误解可思过半矣。今世性呢?既太丰富也太含混。姬子的墨道法相无疑是大幅地晋级了中黄炎子孙民共和国水墨的今世性,而丝毫不会含混于其他画师的现代性。身处国运底层,超然孤独于世,倘使姬子的文章果然与哪位书法家相同了,那只可以表达为命局奇事。

象是视觉艺术之根本,差别的风景形象颇负不一样的意趣与境界。董其昌的南北宗论入眼于单调天真的文人博士审美以至笔墨的单身意味来抑北扬南,在前进文人笔墨的还要却丧失了风光真景之美,且为图式的同黄金年代与陈腔滥调埋下了伏笔。南北有别,自山水画发展之初就已体现出来,但那第风流浪漫依据造化之功,差别自然条件当有分化的地貌特征,荆、关领衔的北北辰山水画派与董、巨所开的南部山水画派庶优庶劣?那样的甄别并无多概况思,北地多豪气,南人多柔婉,审美取向的出入并不能够一贯表明其成败。姬子先生生于北地,自然受那方水土滋养,无论其冰雪风光、墨道山水依旧新兴渗透宇宙意识的自构新境,都鲜明源于北三奥雪山水。当然,个人碰到只是外表因素,心源和有着历史穿透力的学识认知才是姬子先生的内在驱动。

  其二,燕观藏天在音乐大师姬子也是双重性的。美学家姬子的燕观藏天,不论在审美性照旧本体论上,都负有合理性与合法性。倒是墨道法相上的燕观藏天,对音乐大师姬子个人来讲,是不是肯定值不值得?倒真值得深思。

姬子先生敏锐地抓住了古板美术的超越性精气神实质,世袭了澄怀观道澄怀味象的思考,考虑中中原人民共和国画所追求的最高境界究竟是何等。他从儒、道、释各家庭摄取文化精气神儿滋养,体会理解原天地之美而达万物之理、大象无形、大音稀声、视之无形,听之无声,于人之论者谓之冥冥的道的骄矜境界,并把道的狭窄明白推演开来,赋以时代的生命力,他统称禅、儒、道的振作感奋为坦途精气神儿,这种大道精气神儿既是品质修养的有机内容,也是向自然投射的心气,并最终以逾越自然的象呈现出来。

  仅就表面文明生态来说,整整20年前,海子作为天才作家,在与道遇到哪怕唯有是审美(主体)性上之后,就在燕地长城卧轨自寻短见了。万世师表活到70古来稀,谢世,于《论语》也坦言朝闻道,夕死可矣。从笔墨山水,到雪花风光,从冰雪风光到墨道山水,姬子为自个儿而在;既与道碰着,从墨道山水到墨道法相,姬子已在为别人而活。别人又在怎么活呢?拜物、金钱、享乐、权力的奴隶且无论,况以法相为任务的监院也杀害了协和的同道方丈!姬子仍语长心重,被褐怀玉,以墨道法相,以笔显道境,使工具性的笔墨有了本体论上的法相、道境与家庭!就艺术本体论来讲,笔墨的道境,即美术的澄明之境。从山村先有真人,才有真理的思虑条件,中华夏族民共和国写生的澄明之境,必然注重画者本人到达澄明之境。澄明之境,是今世西方艺术的宗旨难点和主导概念。海德格尔曾明言,就澄明之境这意气风发主体难题来讲,荷尔德林诗歌与她的存在之思有着非此不可的涉嫌。隐没50年之久,终于将墨道带入了澄明之境的姬子美术,与问道为责的神州今世学术中的本体之思,在根本程度上也富有某种非此不可的留存涉嫌。姬子以大师的墨道自由精气神,自命不凡,慈祥做事,绽出儿童的忠诚与童真;最新的《构成水墨连串与道对话》又见其功绩、情结和获得。

在其先前时代的雪片风光中,多以山西宏伟而高贵的分界线和GreatWall上下燕山山脉为主,经过主观的压缩,又幻化为包罗普及意义且气势浩然的风貌,此中的第一名藏区佛殿和蜿蜒GreatWall,是人类自个儿力量的显现,也成为画面包车型大巴视觉大旨;以波澜起伏的千山万壑为宗旨,成源雄奇、云层环绕、激荡翻腾,以静屹的修造产生画面中的反重力,内蕴中迸发出十分大的拉力。严穆圣洁的雪山,幽深诡秘、变幻多姿的暮霭,肃穆深邃的佛殿,厚重沉闷的喇嘛长号,浓重的宗派气氛,精耕细作的民俗风情这种奇绝的自然风光、神秘公元元年此前的人文景象、厚重的学问积淀,向人类昭示着稳固的魔力和隐私的诱惑。墨道山水及其后含有宇宙精气神儿的新构,进一层提炼出超过时间和空间的丘陵景观,既像公元元年早前的石洞、又如不知所以的外太空,种种山形交错、挤压,并与圆圈相互层叠,变成多维的意境,具有刚强的意味意味,正如姬子先生所言:小编所搜求的山水画,画中的山水已不是大自然中用肉眼所看见的山,亦不是其余山水画中对大自然山的摹仿化、装饰化、风景化的再次现身。而是后生可畏种标记,生龙活虎种尽只怕有象征艺术化的代表符号,小编要借用那标识表现本人宗旨绪想深层的发掘,使本人的深层意识通过画中物,尽大概直觉把握地溢出来。他把守旧山水画创作进程中的天人合一心思情形,通过直觉把握,直观地在画面表现出来,成为可视的审美对象,这种迹化的道境给人以神秘玄奥、崇高悲壮、圣洁之感。周大地之大,境界之宽给人手快震惊,灵魂就像获得了黄金年代种超拔的洁净。

  个体性灵乎?天道义务乎?

一些塑形整体重构

  要是选取朴素也是真心真意的不二诀窍,姬子就是一个人画者意义上的画者,为大家确实复活了壹个人画者的本来形象及其专门的学业意义。就历史意识来说,至迟它是为唐、朱景玄《古代名画录》画者圣也,盖以穷天地之不至,显日月之不照就讲理解了的。就大家刚渡过的七十世纪来看,苏醒圣也的画者形象及其职业意义,其挑战是空前,未有天道的托命与扶植完全不可捉摸。也只有在天道托命与赞助的存在气氛中,才方可悟入姬子作为壹位一生与道为伴的画者,他对墨道的留恋、苦守与终极澄明。对于科学技术发达而日趋沉沦的表面世界来讲,姬子及其墨道法相无疑是现代描绘文明的偶发,起码是贵重拜拜的视觉福祉。同门为朋,同道为友,作为相识既久、相爱日深的朋友与道之倾听者,笔者个人虽略存隐忧,对姬子的绘画工作和命局,内心深处总引认为幸福与荣耀。

勾、皴、擦、点、染是守旧山水画笔墨展现的主干方式,或依照作画流程单独行使,或灵活套用;对于山石的显示,也大概石分三面,勾线后稍加皴、染,分出阴阳,从不一样的山水地貌中提取并最终产生各样程式化的手法,如斧劈皴、披麻皴、折带皴、莲花茎皴、马牙皴、米点皴等等,实际上是以线为单位或减少为点、或扩充为面,形成了点、线、面多少个不等的皴法会集。由于造象的独本性,姬子先生针对古板山水画在展现冰雪世界方面的薄劣势,再次创下了如雪麻皴、雪劈皴、雪坡皴、雪窝皴等极其规的妙法,浮现为以面为作育的宗旨单元,面里透线,灵动而不乏墨趣,产生斑驳沧海桑田的山石材质,颇为顺应现代审美视觉;面与面之间的上下关系接受自然的明暗手法,既有体块的份量感,又暗合守旧山石阴阳转变层层递进的平叠法。西汉的全景式山水不仅仅珍重近取其质,追求局地山石的奥秘,从当中体证物理,並且远取其势,在整机气势中透射出山水永久之道。姬子先生尽量吸收接纳了宋人山水画中的理法观念,在一些塑形充足的底子上,全部上接受大构造,虚实相济,动静相参,满布画面包车型地铁云气流荡在山体之间,多用层层积染的招式,既沉重淋漓,又小心留白,保持云气不可测其头脑的外形,显明是以人为镜了西方风景画中白云的管理格局;相同的时间,为了坚实视觉上的比较度,在全景画中把握节奏感与高兴点,姬子先生还抢眼的利用光的效能,最黑与最白的物象并置相比,视觉李尚展现。

  2010年三月2日长安武夷山

古板山水画在构图上珍视布署与CEO,越来越多反映出后生可畏种平面包车型地铁意味,特别是两宋山水画之后,空间感已稳步沦亡殆尽,三远法也越来越多独立行使,扣人心弦的景致空间不再可居、可游。视觉上的阙如,自然不会激起内心的感动,姬子先生在墨道山水连串中,完全打破了思想的程式化构图,实行立象重新整合,深邃而神秘的空间将大家带现身实的混乱与干扰,步入玄远幽思的心灵圣地。为了构造的拓宽、景物的扩充,道境的把握,他在这里起彼伏守旧的散点透视法,也即面面观的底工上,创立了四维空间以上的透视法,他称这种透视法为多维透视法。他说:宇宙至深格外,其时间和空间未有方位、方向。尽大概地扩展艺术表现方式的有限度和显示文章精气神儿境界的Infiniti。同一时候,改换了理念的底牌关系,一反守旧的虚无淡化,心心相印了西洋画的内部原因关系,大大进步了文章的拉力,并溶合摄影的是非关系,光效应,大胆启用被古板正是的死墨,压实画面包车型客车完好纵深感。同有时候也借鉴了平面构成的一点因素,光圈与山石透叠穿插,其明暗效应就像是不平时间空隧道般莫名其妙。

The Dao of Ink and Dharma Objects- On Jizis Paintings

庄重华贵幻化光辉

Gao Congyi

本身的画,不是那种只停留在合意心绪、陶冶情操的范畴的事物。作者也不必要看小编画的人都懂,小编只求看本人画的人的初步以为,通过初叶的直觉,步入理性思维,通过观念得出本人的认知,作者想这种认知,不管以什么角度,都会和自小编的深层意识有涉嫌。小编力求这种关系的震引力以致对于心灵的碰撞与洗刷。姬子先生极为刚毅自个儿情势的极限关注与追求,他总结为诗的法学化境界以致中度的人文精气神境界,医学的深度思忖使其创作包涵刚毅的神气穿透力,以至如宗教经常动人心魄。

  At least as far as the stance that the ancient Daoist philosopher Laozi took in the world after he realized the Way (dao), as everyone knows, was a rejection of the world. A modern Western example would be Ludwig Wittgenstein who, after his Tractatus Logical-Philosophicus saw the Way (dao), left the elite celebrity circle of Bertrand Russell, John Maynard Keynes, and others, and ran off to a far away mountain village to become an elementary school teacher and church gardener for more than fifteen years. Before his 27 June 2009 exhibition The Way of Ink and Dharma Objects - a Jizi Exhibition, Mr. Jizis individual life had already been hidden from the world for almost 70 years. As for the contributions of his artistic career, Jizi had been painting in silence for almost 50 years! After hearing this marvelous absurdity, one cannot but feel that it was a tragic and poignant fate, a really telling sign of a painter who has given his life to art.

教派作为意气风发种信仰,其最大特征恐怕正展现为精气神儿的超拔性和纯粹性。姬子先生说的好办法的大自然精气神,不是宗教,却有所宗教性的神气。他的冰雪风光本就多描绘圣地气象,在荒寂祸殃的雪原高原上,形影单只的牦牛、巍巍幽静的宗庙、供于膜拜的石上牛头都是宗教力量的集中突显,劫难与圣洁、庄严与尊严,人文生命与自然精气神在共鸣同振中指向长久。在净土摄影中,光是造物大将量的表示表现,天公如是说:笔者在云层中放置文虹,作为本人和国内外之间协议的申明。中黄炎子孙民共和国金钱观水墨画废弃这种外在展现的方法,而回归于心灵的安静与本人调适,即便画面发生一定的明暗关系,也绝不西方美术的外光描绘,多主观管理。当西方美术作为重要参照类别在20世纪涌入并挤迫中夏族民共和国画发展机会,多数华夏美术大师发轫运用光的表现格局,如黄宾虹灵动的内光、李可染厚重的逆光感,使理念意识美术的形状语言得到新的实行。姬子先生用光有着团结的性子,一是形象创设时略参明暗法,扩大一些体块的品质感,此用光方式可称为概况平光;二是出于画面组成的豆蔻梢头体化思考,在物象重构中以光来界形,并统摄整个画面包车型大巴节奏与对比,此用光格局可称之为内构造光。二种用光格局的最大特点则是幻化不居,圣洁光辉得以在每两个地点闪耀。

  A sharp difference between Jizi and his ancestor Laozi and the Westerner Wittgenstein is that the disappearance of the artist Jizi carried with it much more of being enforced and the tragedy of the nation and its people during that era. At the time of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, just before the death of Mao Zedong, Chinas intellectuals, including artists, had only several modes to choose from: they could be (Maos) students, (state system) slaves, hide from the world, or become martyrs to their own ideology. One could not talk about an independent cultural life, and artists were the first to inhabit this strange world, painting chaotically and indiscriminately, their dreams of making artistic contributions sabotaged. Mr. Jizi chose to survive by disappearing: on the one hand, he wore commoners clothes, absolutely did not flaunt his right to speak, and avoided making his alienation a calamity. On the other hand, he crossed over to doing paintings of the sea, gradually realizing that worldly appearances are like watching clouds form white garments that then became black dogs. The towering decisiveness of his brush and ink were still on the distant horizon. Even so, the paucity of artworks in his early period allowed him, after weighing the matter over and over, to destroy these works voluntarily. Isnt this also a kind of suicide? This was a kind of cultural suicide different from the suicides of the novelist Laoshe (1899-1966) and the translator and art critic Fu Lei (1908-1966) who took their own lives. Chinas intellectuals like Laoshe and Fu Lei did not endure, while Chinas intellectuals like Mr. Jizi endured until after 1977, endured until the science spring and endured until the art spring.

孔丘曾提出人生自己修炼的艺术志于道,据于仁,依于德,游于艺,在姬子先生这里,艺非仅游,而是承道、传道、体仁的不二取舍,艺术正是其全部的生命。天行健,君子以艰苦创业,刚健的性命当使那位仁者的点子自由无疆,其情势发生力将社长久地回响在深远深长的炎黄艺术文脉中,极其是在中中原人民共和国现代艺术发展的大器晚成体化布局中,中夏族民共和国的理念水墨艺术怎么样升高是叁个首要文化选取难题,古板的并不是遵循不改变的,而什么变是二个勤奋费力的施行,多少音乐大师都为此付出生平的心血。对此,我们要说姬子先生的点染艺创实践为大家提供了商量今世中华水墨转型的完美个案,去读、去看将吸引大家深刻思忖在今世艺术历史节点中的中华夏族民共和国艺术,所谓大器晚成永世都以中华夏儿女民共和国美术历史的纯情课题。

  The 1980s were a watershed for Chinas society and also for Mr. Jizi. Just before the middle of the 1980s was the first period of his painting, the period of brush and ink landscapes. Snow Yak, a name that combines the noble and the beautiful, that harmonizes dynamism and sentiment, a masterpiece of traditional realism, was even more a self-portrait of Jizis spirit. Dark brown as the substrate of the style of primary colors displayed the dark memories (black) of the tragic period and a spiritual schemata of the warm and surviving human vision (red). The top of the painting has mountain clouds in contact with the snowy aura (white); in the middle of the painting, high mountain yaks stand in the snow. There is no need to say more, an agreement is here, a spiritual binding. In the painting lone yaks have embarked for the spiritual peak! Too many hardships, too well honed, too thickly accumulated caused Mr. Jizi not only to be unable to remain in a pure and beautiful spiritual homeland but also unable to be satisfied with just treating with contempt the strictures on art. He was not only different from those national artists who painted sweet and vulgar figures but also different from those bewildering abstractionists. Mr. Jizi was like that high mountain yaks who had arrived at the foothills where the snow ends and whose eyes longed for the summit, a secret admonition to climb to the summit engraved in his mind.

The Benevolent Person is Boundless, His Artworks Impressive and Natural

  After departing from the Brush and Ink landscapes, during his so-called Snow and Ice landscapes, Jizi had two natural objects for his choice of themes: the Great Wall in northern Hebei Province, and the snow regions of Tibet. Selecting these two great objects was at a minimum the result of three bits of good luck. First, selecting the Great Wall in Hebei was for Jizi, a Hebei native, looking homeward, a predetermined existentialist encounter. Second was the lines from Mao Zedongs poem Snow : The vast frozen land is covered with ice. And the snow flits far-flung in the sky. On both sides of the Great Wall. The empty wilderness survives. This poem is a symbol of the highest cultural vision, and it prepared the way for the acceptance of realism in historical studies. And third, the Great Wall meanders through the hills of Hebei, and possesses a timeless ontological status and is a symbol of the Way. The Great Wall also signified that the painter was crossing a Rubicon, bidding farewell to the success and possibility of private enjoyment, and instead making himself set out again to create from heaven (qian) and earth (kun) a realm of noble intentions and purity. The two works Snow on the Great Wall and Waves Breaking on Shore are expressions of and witnesses to this realm. In Snow on the Great Wall the Great Wall meanders, but where does it end? In Waves Breaking on Shore the sea of mountains and the waves of clouds are frightful, where can we find a mooring? The Tibetan snow region arrives responding to karma and says put brush to paper. First, the Tibetan snow region has mysterious and sacred aspects; second, in his snow and ice landscapes period, Jizis choice of the Tibetan snow region could not be more natural; and third, the image of a hidden, snowy region that is too mysterious and sacred provides the symbolic answer to the questions where does it end and where can we find a mooring. If for example we say that the Great Wall of homeland Hebei is a brush and ink symbolic language for time, and the surging and frightening cloudy mountains are an artistic representation and generalization of lifes quirks, then the far off snowy regions of Tibet are the brush and ink symbolic language for space, a figurative representation of a spiritual homeland. The distinction between the Hebei Great Wall and the Tibetan Snow Regions is time and space, the symbolic image of the road and the destination, and also the symbolic image of the last farewell. From the unification of time and space in the symbolic imagery of the Hebei earth and the Tibet heaven, to the two paintings titled Mixing Heaven (Qian) and Earth (Kun) and the Great Herd that represent the beginning of an ontology in which the universe is one, the artist then goes from snow and ice landscapes to the Dao of Ink landscapes, from an aesthetic momentum to arriving at the spiritual wisdom of the mysteries of dharma objects (fa xiang). Ink and the Way (dao) complete their final encounter as mutually presented and clarified. Beauty is the way that truth (dao) dwells in the world. From the dwelling of the Way (dao), Jizis brush and ink open out on an incomparable purity, glory, and spirituality. For the past thousand years, Chinese painting formed a composition paradigm known as the three distances : the level distance (drawing an extensive space both horizontally and laterally); the high distance (looking from the base of a mountain to the peak); and the deep distance (glimpsing other mountains from atop a mountain). The level distance is used the most with high distance second. While there is this third method, the deep distance, it is rarely used and basically absent from paintings. Mr. Jizis Dao of Ink Landscapes fundamentally uses this deep distance method for construction, for patterns, and to fill a void. We can say he is the Master of this deep distance method. The method is an arduous one that opens up mountains and forests so merit goes to the pioneer. The mixing of heaven (qian) and earth (kun) and the solemnity of the dharma objects (fa xiang) are the wealth and honor of he who integrated them.

-A Discussion of the Essentials of Jizis Landscape Paintings

  This is no accident. From the perspective of the philosophy of art, the above described level distance and high distance methods rely even more on a persons eyes and external visual experiences to discriminate between two great humanistic aspirations: the graceful and lasting appeal of quietude, and the lofty realm of movement. The deep distance method is quite different. Although we cannot say that the deep distance method has no relation to a persons sight and external visual experiences, deep distance first and foremost, however, depends on a persons spiritual wisdom and inherent transcendental intuition. The level distance and high distance methods are more about leaning about painting from natures creations while the deep distance method is much more about finding the source for a painting in your mind. This without doubt puts quite a demand on an artist. In thousands of years of art history, the artists who could find the source for a painting in their minds are few in number. Many of them were Shi Taos (1630-1724) eminent monks who excelled with the brush (according to Huang Binhong 1865-1955). Jizis paintings to a great extent changed this historical pattern of Chinese painting. Jizis paintings encompasses three periods and styles: brush and ink landscapes, snow and ice landscapes, and the Dao of ink landscapes. Speaking from a creative paradigm, Jizis paintings exactly correspond to what traditional Chinese painting calls the three methods of level, deep, and high distances. Jizis Dao of ink landscapes in particular use and practice the deep distance method. Although Jizi himself was influenced by the religiosity of the other shore philosophies of Shi Tao and Blaise Pascal (1623-6162), with respect to the two aspects of creative mentality and the general appearance of paintings, Jizi still implemented the pursuit of Chinese painting for the highest spiritual realm (according to Jizi), and without doubt this is a significant gain and good news for traditional Chinese painting. The name and the theme of The Dao of Ink and Dharma Objects appropriately epitomizes the highest spiritual realm and the realm of painting. In Chinas traditional culture, the spirit of Chinas thought is pictured as an ancient cauldron with three legs representing Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In the The Dao of Ink and Dharma Objects name itself we can see the deep colors of this cauldron. Faced with vast and profound art works, the critics approved: these paintings are by a modern landscape artist who, after returning to the concept of insight into the Dao, has created new graphic representations and a new realm (said Jia Fangzhou); these paintings give new life to the universe and mankinds past (said Yin Shuangxi); and these paintings have mysteries that nature hides (said Danto). The Dao of Ink, from the source in Jizis mind, has finally arrived at a universal pure realm! With regards to this loyal artist, after a long period of great testing, the world finally pays him some small formal courtesies! This will be seen as iconic but it has symbolic significance.

Deng Feng

  If we are only talking about the specific time, Jizis Dao of Ink came into our world along with the 21st century. The trends of coloration, geometric symbols, and construction and ink of the past two years were not the start of the Dao of Ink but rather they derived from an internal response to the Dao of Ink. These trends sprung from the Dao of Ink realm and adjusted and changed to it. To be more specific, these trends appeared as the Dao of Ink landscapes changed to Dharma Objects, and from the initial emerging, these dharma objects gradually approached their grandeur. Beyond this, we are not well versed and this is where questions and misunderstandings arise.

When I first got to know Mr. Jizi (Wang Yunshan), I was moved by his broad mindedness and compassion (ren). After viewing his paintings, I felt that both their uninhibited spirit and their ability to carry the Dao were equally important. By spirit here I mean the talent aroused in artists since ancient times by mountain, rivers, and the universe, not the impromptu and leisurely images of the literati, nor the escapades and self amusement of those who merely play with brush and ink. By Dao here I mean both the Dao of Heaven and Earth, and also the Dao that molds character. Even if a painting does not have people in it, still that painting pulsates with human strength. This strength is externalized as natural landscapes, some of which are desolate, some wild, and some magnificent. These paintings construct a world of landscapes that are sublime and also slightly tragic, and so mysterious that they cause people to meditate on them.

  The first of these questions and misunderstandings is that, when some of our friends are faced with the modernity and the composition series of Jizis Dharma Objects, they say that Gu Wenda (born 1955), Zhao Wuji (1921-2013), and other artists have already explored and presented this. My response to these friends is that, as a technique, composing is a key logical element for mankind. As game playing, childrens toy blocks are vivid and intuitive; as painting, there are extensive precedents in Picassos cubism (composition) and Viennese Neo-expressionism (colors), and China was a successor to these. As for the method of Dao, I have seen none who can compare to Jizis the Dao of Ink and Dharma Objects or his Grandeur of Dharma Objects. The subtitle of Jizis Composed Ink Paintings is a dialogue with the Dao. Jizi is the product of an ontological realm and he composes by following his karma, not by playing with drawing techniques, and this should make us feel remorse for half the questions and misunderstandings. Modern? This is both too rich and also too vague. There is absolutely no doubt that Jizis Dao of Ink and Dharma Objects enhances the modernity of Chinas ink painting but does not in the slightest blur the modernity of other artists. As a person from the lower ranks of the nations fate, who was aloof and alone in the world, if Jizis creations are really similar to some other artist, then this can only be explained as a providential wonder.

Jizi lived beyond the Great Wall at the foot of Mt. Yan. For several decades he was steeped in a bold and broad environment of mountains and rivers. His remarkable landscape creations have reached new heights in the cultural spirit and main body of Chinese art, a cause for both admiration and surprise. I visited Jizis apartment in Beijing several times and was always moved by his artistic dedication, and admired the delightful vitality and vast spirit of his paintings.

  The second of these questions and misunderstandings is that Observing Tibet from Hebei is for the artist Jizi a duality. It does not seem to matter that, from an aesthetic or an ontological perspective, the artist Jizis Observing Tibet from Hebei is reasonable and legitimate. Actually, with respect to Jizi himself, whether or not the Observing Tibet from Hebei in the Dao of Ink and Dharma Objects was necessarily worth it, is something really worth pondering.

As early as the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Zong Bing had already theorized that: Sages use their own intelligence and wisdom to realize the Dao; worthies clarify their minds to savor artistic images that emerge from the Dao; in this way, both sages and worthies comprehend the Dao. Landscape painting uses forms to adorn and embody the Dao, allowing the benevolent (ren) to rejoice at finding enlightenment among landscapes. From the beginning, traditional landscape painting based the viewpoint for its value judgments on this metaphysical quest for the Dao. Thus forms adorned the Dao, and were physical signs of the Dao that provided pleasure to viewers. Because the Dao is abstract and primeval, and due to the constraints of the cultural position of adorning the Dao, the forms of traditional landscape painting, on the basis of maintaining a certain degree of identity, had the artists using accrued combinations of brush and ink symbols; a subjective, virtual space-time continuum; fixed drawings, stylized techniques, and an orientation toward relatively constant artistic values - all of which became the significant features of traditional landscape painting. These limits and constraints, although they assured the completeness and purity of the traditional landscape painting system, and allowed the ancients in the midst of their ability to model mountains and mold rivers to describe the unaffected spirit in their bosoms, and in the realm of going beyond the image to embody their intuition of the Dao, nevertheless, this relatively mature system also presented a relatively rigid visual language. How to breakthrough this paradox was not only an internal requirement in the historical development of traditional landscape painting, but also an issue that is now even more urgent in the face of Western cultures impact on and penetration into Chinese culture in the contemporary and modern periods.

  Speaking merely of an external civilized ecology, a full twenty years ago, the talented poet Zha Haisheng (1964-1989), known as Haizi, after his encounter with the Dao - even if it was only aesthetics (theme) - laid down on a track near the Great Wall in Hebei and committed suicide. Confucius lived to the seldom seen age of 70 and died in his sleep. In the Analects of Confucius, he stated quite frankly that Having heard the Dao in the morning, one may die without regret that evening. From brush and ink landscapes to snow and ice landscapes, and from snow and ice landscapes to the Dao of Ink landscapes, Jizi did all these landscapes for himself. Now that he has encountered the Dao, from the Dao of Ink landscapes to the Dao of Ink and Dharma Objects, Jizi is living for others. And for what do those other live? We wont mention the slaves to consumer fetishes, money, enjoyment, and power, or those monastic managers who take the Dharma Objects as a bounden duty to destroy their fellow monks! Jizis earnest remonstrations, his poor dress but rich spirituality, his use of ink to channel (Dao) Dharma objects, his use of the brush to reveal the realm of the Dao, and his brush and ink tools have an ontological view of Dharma objects, a Daoist realm, and a homeland! Speaking from the perspective of an art ontology, the Daoist realm of brush and ink is a realm of clarity for painting. From the ancient Daoist philosopher Zhuangzis ideological principle that first there must be authentic people only then can there be authentic knowledge, Chinese paintings realm of clarity must perforce rely on the artist himself attaining to the realm of clarity. The realm of clarity is a fundamental issue and key concept in Western art. Heidegger has made it clear that, as far as this key concept of a realm of clarity goes, the poems and songs of the German poet Johann Holderlin (1770-1843) and his existential thought cannot but be associated with it. Jizis paintings, hidden for a long fifty years, finally took the Dao of Ink paintings and brought them into the realm of clarity, and to a basic extent this also has a certain cannot but be associated with the ontological thinking in modern Chinese academic thought that claims a responsibility to enquire about the Dao. Jizi has a Great Master of the Dao of Inks spirit of freedom, aloofness, and labor of love that burst with a childlike sincerity and purity. Jizis new work continues, fully indicating his merits, sentiments, and results.

In the more than fifty years that Jizi, who will soon be seventy years of age, has pursued the arts seeking the Dao, he has deeply felt the anxieties of the present age, and the anxieties and confusion in the development of art. He uses benevolence (ren) as his foundation, nourishes his vast, flowing passion nature, and structures his philosophy from the Dao of Heaven, earth, and man. As the poet said: The vast, flowing passion nature is just the sense of righteousness that exists in the world. What this sense of righteousness confers on humanity is a highly integrated sense of truth, goodness, and beauty, and of the noble, tragic, strong, upright, and serene. The artworks of artists are the products of the artists taking an action (youwei) but their artworks should also embody a spirit of taking no action (wuwei). Taking no action is the spirit of the universe, the spirit of the great Dao. Artists are not only understand the harmony among Heaven, earth, and man, but also are proponents of this harmony, while at the same time they seek a cosmic consciousness. Jizi strictly grasps this type of artistic seeking: his artworks are concrete manifestations that he bears responsibility for this seeking for a cosmic consciousness, and for this reason he named his landscapes the Dao of Ink Landscapes. From the following quote from Jizi, we can see his self-disciplined pursuit of this goal: Viewing my paintings is not a cheerfully pleasant experience, a relaxing pastime, nor an experience that experts on traditional and orthodox brush and ink paintings relish, but rather an experience for those who can exchange serious ideas on all aspects of the artworks. My paintings are not the brush and ink works that the literati delighted in painting, they are not poetic paintings, and they are not paintings that play with ink, or that joyfully satisfy the artists wish to express his carefree spirit like all those paintings of mountains and recluses. My paintings do not have spiraling smoke, drizzling rain, floating boats, weeping willows, dripping ducks, matching pairs of Mandarin ducks, or Ladies Among the Plantain Trees. What my paintings set out to do is express the endless movements, tenacious struggles and rivalries, and the loud screams of life in the universe. I strive to use my artistic language to wash away humanitys depressions and troubles, and to seek the true meaning of life in the universe.

  An individual soul? A heavenly task?

The goal of artistic language is producing a mode of expression about art, rather than the purposeful expression of art. The fundamentals of this artistic language are what is being described and how it is being described. The traditional art of the East and the West each has its own artistic language system; nevertheless, we can see among the differences a consistent pursuit of the artistic spirit. Jizis landscape paintings use just such a historical view, a sense of the times, and a strong sense of purpose to perfect his own artistic language in order, not only to penetrate the vertical image sequence in the language of traditional landscape painting, but also to carry out a horizontal dissection of Western art, so that in making decisions about the vertical and the horizontal image sequences, the artist opens up a new realm for his own paintings features and figures.

  If we select a simple and sincere manner of description, then Jizi is a painters painter who has really revived for us the original image of the artist and the significance of an artists work. As for historical awareness, it was no later than the Tang dynasty when Zhu Jingxuan, in his Record of Famous Paintings of the Tang Dynasty, said: The painter is a sage who surpasses at finishing what heaven and earth cannot, and displaying what the sun and the moon do not illuminate, thereby stating the matter quite clearly. Looking from the perspective of the just passed twentieth century, the challenges for reviving the image of the artist as sage and reviving the significance of his work are unprecedented, and unless there is natural intervention and help, the revival is very difficult to imagine. And it is only in the atmosphere of natural intervention and help that we can become enlightened about Jizi as a painter who all his life has made the Dao a companion, and his attachment and loyalty to, and clarity about the Dao of Ink. As to the external world in which technique flourishes even as art itself is degraded, without doubt Jizis Dao of Ink and Dharma Objects is a marvel of contemporary art and civilization, and at a minimum a visual happiness that we will find difficult to view again. That people from the same house are friends while people going the same way (dao) are companions has long been an axiom. I myself have slightly hidden those friends whom I daily get to know better and with whom I bend my ear to the Dao; but as for Jizis painting career and destiny, in my heart of hearts, I have always considered them a blessing and an honor.

The Dao Inspires Creation of the Image; Mind is the Source for Creating the Artistic Realm

  1.The allusion to clouds changing their transitory semblance from white garments to black dogs is taken from a poem by the Tang dynasty poet Du Fu (born 712).  2.Translation of Maos poem Snow is by Paul Wood, 1993, Tianjin Peoples Publishing House.  3.Qian and Kun are the two lines, solid and broken respectively, that represent heaven and earth and make up the eight trigrams that, in ancient China, formed a basic schemata for the universe.   4.Dharma objects is a key concept of the Buddhist Consciousness-only School whose major tenet is that nothing exists independently of mind.

The image is the basis for the visual arts, and different landscape images present different artistic interests and realms. In his Discourse on the Northern and Southern Schools, Dong Qichang emphasized a plain and innocent literati aesthetic and, by stressing the independent nature of ink and brush paintings, Dong restricted the Northern School and raised the Southern School. At the same time that Dong was developing the literati style of brush and ink painting, he was also forfeiting the true beauty of landscape painting. By insisting on using similar graphic modes and following the same painting routine, Dong in effect waylaid creative use of the brush. The Northern and the Southern Schools have their differences, something already evident from the earliest development of landscape painting. But does this initial basing of landscape painting on creative accomplishments and on the different natural conditions of different landscape features allow us to say that the Northern School led by Jing Hao and Guan Tong was either inferior or superior to the Southern School established by Dong Yuan and Ju Ran? This type of differentiation is really rather meaningless. Northern places produce a bold people while southerners are more gentle, and differences in aesthetic orientation alone do not allow us to directly declare one superior and the other inferior. Mr Jizi was born in the North and was raised amidst northern lands and waters. All of his landscape paintings - no matter whether his Snow and Ice Landscapes, his Dao of Ink Landscapes, or his later landscapes of self structured scenes that permeate the cosmic consciousness - all these landscape paintings have their origins in Northern landscapes. Of course, an individuals encounters in life are external factors, Jizis inner drive comes from finding the source for paintings in ones mind as well as a cultural knowledge powerful enough to penetrate history.

  5.The word Dharma stands for all past, present, and future things and events while objects describes the result of the interaction between those things or events and mind.  6.The method of the three distances, level, deep, and high distances, is an artistic theory formulated by the Song dynasty artist and scholar Guo Xi (1023-1085).)  7.Learning about painting from natures creations, but finding the source for paintings in your mind is an artistic theory formulated by the seventh century Tang artist and scholar Zhang Zao.

Jizi has astutely grasped the transcendent spiritual essence of traditional painting. He has inherited the ideology of purifying the mind to glimpse the Dao, and purifying the mind to get the sense of an object. He has thought deeply about what after all is the highest realm that Chinese painting wants to attain. He has drawn cultural and spiritual nourishment from Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, and realized that transcendent realm of the Dao where the sages trace out the beauty of the universe, and comprehend the myriad of things in the universe; where great images have no forms, and great music uses sound sparingly; and where looking for it, there is no form; listening for it, there is no sound; and men who discuss it find it abstruse. Jizi has taken the narrow definition of Dao and extended it, endowing it with the vitality of the times. He collectively designates the Confucian, Daoist, and Chan Buddhist spirits as the spirit of the great Dao. This spirit of the great Dao is not only the organic content of personal cultivation, but also the projection of ones sentiments onto nature, both of which ultimately emerge as images that transcend nature.

In the Snow and Ice Landscapes of his early period, Jizi primarily took Tibets majestic and sacred mountains and rivers, as well as the Yanshan mountain range both within and without the Great Wall, as his themes. After these themes underwent subjective cropping, they metamorphosed into scenes of universal significance and broad grandeur. Among these are scenes of traditional Tibetan temples and the meandering Great Wall, manifestations of humanitys own strength that are also the pictures visual centers. With the undulating, mighty mountains as the central subject, the magnificent towering mountains, surrounded by clouds that surge and billow, provide a counter force to the buildings on the towering, motionless mountain peaks, and to the great tension that lies hidden inside these mountains. The solemn and sacred snow mountains that are deep and secretive change into varied clouds and mists, while the deep and solemn temples, the thick and dull Lama trombones, the strong religious atmosphere, the broad and intensive folk customs - these kinds of wonderful, natural scenery and mysterious and ancient cultural landscapes are a profound cultural heritage symbolizing for humanity an eternal allure that is charming and mysterious. The Dao of Ink Landscapes and the later new compositions that permeate the cosmic consciousness have both advanced the refinement of depicting scenes of mountains and rivers that transcend a space-time continuum. These landscape paintings have images that not only appear to be ancient caves, but also some kind of unknown outer space where various types of mountainous forms interlock, extrude, and mutually overlap with round forms to create a multi-dimensional imagery that possesses strong symbolic significance. Just as Jizi himself has said: In my explorations of landscape painting, the landscapes in the paintings are not composed of mountains that one can see in the natural world with ones own eyes, nor are they reproductions of the imitated, decorated, and scenic natural mountains in other landscape paintings. Rather, the landscapes in my paintings are symbols that as much as possible signify art. I borrow these symbols to express a deep awareness of my primary ideas so that this deep awareness, by means of the objects in the paintings, can as much as possible overflow with intuitive understanding. Jizi has taken the state of mind where Heaven and humanity are one, a state of mind that exists in the traditional landscape creative process and, by means of intuitive comprehension, visually expressed this state of mind in the paintings, painting it as visual, aesthetic objects. These traces of the realm of the Dao give people a sense of the mysterious, the sublime, the tragic, and the sacred. The paintings great tension and broad realms give people a spiritual shock that seems to be a kind of transcendental purification of their souls.

Partial Remodeling and Total Reconstruction

Delineation, light ink strokes, rubbing, spotting, and staining are all basic brush and ink strokes and methods of artistic expression in traditional landscape painting. Some painters, based on their painting process, use these methods independently, while other painters apply them flexibly. As for displaying mountain rocks, most rocks have three tableaux: a rock is first delineated, then light ink strokes and staining are used to distinguish lightness and darkness. The brush strokes used for this were developed by painting different landscape topographies. Ultimately, the brush strokes become various types of stylized techniques. These stylized brush techniques have names such as: the axe swing stroke, the wrinkled stroke, the folded band stroke, the veins of the lotus leaf stroke, the horse teeth stroke, the dense dotting stroke, and so on. In fact, the artists used lines as units and either shortened the lines to dots or extended them for a tableau. These then became a collection of three different brush strokes: the line, the dot, and the tableau. Due to his unique way of creating images, Jizi, in connection with traditional landscape paintings display of snow and ice landscapes by using the brush to produce weak, pale spots, created unique brush techniques such as the coarse snow stroke, the split snow stroke, the wrap around snow stroke, the nest of snow stroke, and so on. These brush stroke techniques embodied the use of tableau as the basic creative unit; within the tableau, lines appear that are agile and use ink in interesting ways. These brush stroke techniques display the mottled changes in the textures of mountain rocks that are quite consistent with the modern aesthetic vision. The textual relationship among tableaux utilizes certain shading techniques that not only have a segmental sense of weight, but also coincide with the overlapping method brought about by the layered changes that traditional landscape painting used to display the shaded (yin) and lighted (yang) aspects of mountain rocks. The panoramic landscapes of the Northern Song not only emphasized having the painting show its essence when viewed close up, by which they meant pursuing a subtle view of local mountain rocks that embodies the physics involved, but they also emphasized having the painting show its power when viewed from afar, that is that the imposing manner of the whole painting radiate the timeless Dao of landscape painting. Jizi fully absorbed the Song landscape artists concepts of artistic rules and reasons. On the ample basis of partial remodeling, Jizi uses great architecture throughout his landscape paintings in which the real and the theoretical are equal, the dynamic and the static participate equally, and the clouds that completely cover the painting wander among the mountains. Jizi frequently employs the layered accumulation of ink technique that not only drips ink thickly, but can also be used to apply white carefully to maintain an outer appearance of the immeasurable traces of clouds and mists. Jizi has obviously learned from the approach to clouds in Western landscape painting, while at the same time, in order to enhance contrast, he has grasped the sense of rhythm and excitement of the whole panorama. Jizi also cleverly utilizes the role of light: the blackest and whitest physical images are juxtaposed for contrast, highlighting the visual tension.

In composition, traditional landscape painting stressed arrangement and management so that traditional landscape painting could give even more expression to, and derive more meaning from, a planar surface. Especially after the landscape paintings of the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties, however, the spatial sense gradually became faded and exhausted. The method of the three distances became even more independently applied, and one could no longer dwell or roam in the fascinating spaces of landscape painting. The lack of a visual sense could not of course shock a viewers inner mind. In his Dao of Ink Landscape Series, Jizi completely broke with the traditional stylized composition and advanced his restructuring of images to establish a deep and mysterious space that made people realize the reality of chaos and distress, and that led them into a holy land of the soul that is mysterious, distant, and profound. In order to expand the layout, broaden the scene, and comprehend the realm of the Dao, Jizi carried on the traditional scattered perspective method, which is also the foundation for a panorama, and created a perspective on space of four or more dimensions that he named the multi-dimensional perspective. He said: The universe is extremely deep and profound, and its time and space have no location, no direction. . . . As much as possible, I expand an artworks limits on the expression of forms, and give expression to the artworks unlimited spiritual sphere. At the same time, Jizi transformed the traditional relationship between the real and the false to counter the tradition of putting less emphasis on emptiness. He also mastered Western arts relationship between the real and the false, thereby greatly strengthening the tension in his artworks, and fusing the paintings black and white relationship and the optical effects, boldly utilizing a black color that traditional landscape painting called dead black, thereby reinforcing the paintings overall feeling of depth. At the same time, Jizi learned from factors used in plane surface composition such as apertures with mountain rocks overlapped and interspersed. His shading effects are as intangible as a time tunnel.

A Solemn Sublimity, An Illusional Brilliance

My paintings are not the kind of paintings that stop once they have reached the level of providing the viewer with a pleasant mood or some character cultivation (although they often include these). Nor do I require that viewers completely understand my paintings. Instead, I only require that the initial feelings that people viewing my paintings have, by means of a first intuition, cause them to reflect rationally on the paintings and, by means of this reflection, come to their own understanding. I believe that this type of understanding, no matter the point of view, enables them to relate to the deepest layers of my mind. I strive to create the power to shock, and to impact and cleanse the viewers soul. Jizi is extremely clear about the ultimate concerns and pursuits of his art. He sums up that a philosophical realm of poetry and the height of a realm of the humanist spirit are the profound philosophical thoughts that give his artworks a strong, spiritual penetrating power that moves peoples souls in an almost religious manner.

Religion is a type of belief, and the greatest feature of religion is perhaps that it embodies a spirit of transcendence and purity. Jizi puts it well: The universal spirit of art is not religion, but it has a religious ethos. His Snow and Ice Landscapes depict a sacred atmosphere: the desolate, melancholy, snowy plateau; the solitary yak walking alone; the towering, quiet temple; a cows skull placed atop a rock for worship

  • all of these are concentrated expressions of misery and nobility, solemnity and dignity that resound and resonate with humanitys cultural life and natures spirit pointing to eternity. In Western painting, light symbolizes the power of God, and God Himself said: I have set my rainbow in the clouds, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and the earth. Chinese traditional art discarded this mode of outward manifestation, returning instead to a calm and self-adapting inner mind that in paintings produce a definite relationship between light and dark that is most definitely not Western paintings depiction of outer light, but a much more subjective process. Western arts importance as a reference system in the 20th century, however, squeezed into and pressed against the development of Chinese art, and a good many Chinese artists began to utilize light as a form of artistic expression. For example, Huang Binhongs agile use of inner light, and Li Kerans sense of heavy backlighting provided a new broadening of traditional paintings morphological language. Jizis use of light has its own distinguishing features. One feature is his strategic use of shading when creating an image so that the shading increases the qualitative sense of partial segmentation, a use of light that we might call silhouetted light. Another feature springs from overall consideration of the paintings composition where, in the reconstruction of the images, light is used as a boundary for form, and to unify the rhythm and contrast of the entire painting surface, a use of light that we might call inner structure light. The greatest characteristic of these two modes of using light is an illusionary arrangement where a holy brightness radiates from every place.

Confucius previously proposed this formula for self-cultivation: Set your will on the Dao; be in accord with virtue; depend on benevolence (ren); take pleasure in the arts. In Jizis works, not only does art give pleasure, but art is also the best choice for carrying the Dao, for transmitting the Dao, and for embodying benevolence (ren). Art, in other words, is Jizis whole life. The noble-minded person, like Heaven itself, continues to advance with a lofty fortitude. An energetic life has caused the art of Jizi, this benevolent (ren) person, to be free and boundless. The explosive force of his art will have lasting repercussions in the context of a long ago and remote Chinese art form, and especially in the overall pattern of the development of contemporary Chinese art. How Chinas traditional ink art should develop is an issue that presents a major cultural choice. Traditional art is most definitely not something that is fixed and unchanging, but how it should change and how to put the change into practice are difficult issues, and many artists have given a lifetime of effort to this issue of how best to change tradition. With regards to this issue, we can say that the creative artistic practices of Jizis paintings have provided us with a good case to research the transformations in contemporary Chinese ink art. Studying and viewing his art should provoke us to think deeply about Chinese art at this point in contemporary art history. That a great talent takes time to mature has always been a fascinating theme in the history of Chinese aesthetics.

(The author is a research fellow at the National Art Museum of China.)

Translated by E. F. Connelly, PhD